Age-related Macular degeneration (AMD) needs a special mention, as it is the leading cause of blindness and loss of vision.
It is estimated one in seven people over the age of 50 are affected, with the incidence increasing with age.
There are two types of Macular Degeneration: the dry form and the wet form.
The dry form leads to gradual loss of central vision, while the wet form is is a more sudden loss of vision due to abnormal blood vessels growing under the macula/fovea.
The risk increases 50% if there is a family history of AMD and 3-4 times the risk if you smoke. Symptoms include ark patches in your vision, difficulty in reading and particular distortions of straight lines. Early detection is vital as there are many new and effective treatments.